środa, 29 sierpnia 2012

Krążownik Brooklyn z działami 203 mm - 14.06.2011

Zainspirowany przekształceniem przez Japończyków krążowników typu Mogami z lekkich w ciężkie pomyślałem sobie, czy by nie zrobić czegoś podobnego z amerykańskimi Brooklynami? Atrakcyjność takiego rozwiązania podnosi fakt dysponowania przez Amerykanów od 1943 r. znakomitym 8-calowym działem Mark16 (stanowiącym potem uzbrojenie krążowników typu Des Moines), strzelającym 152 kg pociskami z częstotliwością 10 strz./min. 10 takich dział może wystrzelić teoretycznie 15ton pocisków na minutę – wartość nieporównywalna z jakimkolwiek innym drugowojennym krążownikiem (z 15 działami 6-calowymi Brooklyn mógł wystrzelić na minutę pociski o łącznej wadze rzędu 6,5 tony, jeszcze lepiej wypada porównanie z najprawdopodobniejszymi przeciwnikami – japońskie krążowniki ciężkie z 10 działami 203 mm mogły wystrzelić zaledwie ok. 5 ton pocisków na minutę..). W ten sposób, relatywnie nikim kosztem otrzymujemy – ośmielę się stwierdzić – najlepszy krążownik Drugiej Wojny Światowej. Oczywiście, zamontowanie 8-calówek nie obyło się bez zwiększenia wyporności okrętu, na skutek czego nieco spadła prędkość i zasięg, ale i tak pozostały one na co najmniej akceptowalnym poziomie. Otwartą pozostaje kwestia wykonalności takiej modyfikacji – ja założyłem, że na barbetach po trójdziałowych wieżach dział 6-calowych zmieszczą się podwójne wieże 8-calowe..

  

Brooklyn, United States heavy cruiser laid down 1935 (Engine 1936)

Displacement:
    10 454 t light; 11 061 t standard; 12 344 t normal; 13 370 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
    608,33 ft / 600,00 ft x 61,75 ft (Bulges 69,00 ft) x 22,74 ft (normal load)
    185,42 m / 182,88 m x 18,82 m (Bulges 21,03 m)  x 6,93 m

Armament:
      10 - 7,99" / 203 mm guns (5x2 guns), 255,24lbs / 115,77kg shells, 1935 Model
      Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes)
      on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised mounts - superfiring
      8 - 5,00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62,50lbs / 28,35kg shells, 1935 Model
      Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists
      on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring
      24 - 1,57" / 40,0 mm guns (12x2 guns), 1,95lbs / 0,88kg shells, 1935 Model
      Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts
      on side, all amidships
      24 - 0,79" / 20,0 mm guns in single mounts, 0,24lbs / 0,11kg shells, 1935 Model
      Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts
      on side, evenly spread
    Weight of broadside 3 105 lbs / 1 408 kg
    Shells per gun, main battery: 200

Armour:
   - Belts:        Width (max)    Length (avg)        Height (avg)
    Main:    5,00" / 127 mm    233,01 ft / 71,02 m    9,12 ft / 2,78 m
    Ends:    Unarmoured
      Main Belt covers 60% of normal length
      Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges:
        0,98" / 25 mm    396,03 ft / 120,71 m    21,46 ft / 6,54 m

   - Gun armour:    Face (max)    Other gunhouse (avg)    Barbette/hoist (max)
    Main:    7,01" / 178 mm    3,50" / 89 mm        5,98" / 152 mm
    2nd:    0,98" / 25 mm          -                  -

   - Armour deck: 2,01" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 5,00" / 127 mm

Machinery:
    Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
    Geared drive, 4 shafts, 87 341 shp / 65 156 Kw = 31,30 kts
    Range 9 360nm at 15,00 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 2 309 tons

Complement:
    585 - 761

Cost:
    £5,269 million / $21,077 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 388 tons, 3,1%
    Armour: 2 504 tons, 20,3%
       - Belts: 486 tons, 3,9%
       - Torpedo bulkhead: 309 tons, 2,5%
       - Armament: 766 tons, 6,2%
       - Armour Deck: 884 tons, 7,2%
       - Conning Tower: 58 tons, 0,5%
    Machinery: 2 451 tons, 19,9%
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 4 911 tons, 39,8%
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1 890 tons, 15,3%
    Miscellaneous weights: 200 tons, 1,6%

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      14 535 lbs / 6 593 Kg = 56,9 x 8,0 " / 203 mm shells or 2,4 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,15
    Metacentric height 3,2 ft / 1,0 m
    Roll period: 16,3 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,46
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1,00

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has a flush deck
    Block coefficient: 0,459
    Length to Beam Ratio: 8,70 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 24,49 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 13,80 degrees
    Stern overhang: 2,13 ft / 0,65 m
    Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
       - Stem:        25,23 ft / 7,69 m
       - Forecastle (16%):    18,44 ft / 5,62 m
       - Mid (50%):        18,44 ft / 5,62 m
       - Quarterdeck (18%):    18,44 ft / 5,62 m
       - Stern:        20,37 ft / 6,21 m
       - Average freeboard:    19,05 ft / 5,81 m
    Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135,7%
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 142,9%
    Waterplane Area: 23 808 Square feet or 2 212 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115%
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 124 lbs/sq ft or 604 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0,97
        - Longitudinal: 1,25
        - Overall: 1,00
    Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped
    Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

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