środa, 29 sierpnia 2012

Flota japońska - XIX w. - 14.09.2011

Jak wiadomo, już w latach 60-tych XIX w. flota japońska, dotychczas zupełnie przestarzała i nieodpowiadająca wymogom współczesnego pola walki, rozpoczęła modernizację,zamawiając w stoczniach zagranicznych m.in. kilka niedużych okrętów pancernych.Ciągle jednak była to co najwyżej flota obrony wybrzeża, jedynymi prawdziwie ofensywnymi (choć nieudanymi) okrętami były krążowniki typu Matsushima, które weszły do służby dopiero w pierwszej połowie lat 90-tych XIX w. Okres budowy ofensywnej floty z prawdziwego zdarzenia to jednak dopiero przełom XIX i XX w.,już po wojnie z Chinami. Zbudowane wówczas jednostki były w stanie rzucić wyzwanie i pokonać flotę rosyjską.   Zastanawiałem się ostatnio,jakby mogła by wyglądać flota japońska, gdyby kraj ten zdecydował się wcześniej niż to miało miejsce w rzeczywistości, wejść na drogę militarnej ekspansji i co za tym idzie  – budowę silnej floty o charakterze ofensywnym. Temu zagadnieniu zamierzam poświęcić najbliższe posty. Oczywiście, główny potencjalny przeciwnik, Chiny nie posiadał w latach 60-tych jeszcze silnej floty, niemniej wydaje się, że Japończycy i tak musieli by się zabezpieczyć na morzu przed ryzykiem ewentualnej interwencji mocarstw zachodnich, co przecież w rzeczywistości się zdarzało. Stąd wydaje się koniecznym budowa floty pancernej już od samego początku. Zatem, zaczynamy od projektu pancernika bateryjnego,fregaty i korwety z pełnym ożaglowaniem, zbudowanych w pierwszej połowie lat 60-tych XIX w.
Hizen, japanese battleship laid down 1863 (Engine 1864)
Armoured Frigate (Broadside ironclad)

Displacement:
    5 012 t light; 5 293 t standard; 5 791 t normal; 6 189 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
    274,67 ft / 274,67 ft x 54,66 ft x 23,20 ft (normal load)
    83,72 m / 83,72 m x 16,66 m  x 7,07 m

Armament:
      20 - 300pdr guns in single mounts, 1863 Model
      Smoothbore guns in broadside mounts
     on side, evenly spread
      20 guns on gundeck (upper belt level) - Limited use in all but light seas
    Weight of broadside 3 000 lbs / 1 361 kg
    Shells per gun, main battery: 120

Armour:
   - Belts:        Width (max)    Length (avg)        Height (avg)
    Main:    5,98" / 152 mm    231,14 ft / 70,45 m    7,09 ft / 2,16 m
    Ends:    Unarmoured
      Main Belt covers 129% of normal length

   - Gun armour:    Face (max)    Other gunhouse (avg)    Barbette/hoist (max)
    Main:    4,49" / 114 mm          -                  -

   - Armour deck: 1,18" / 30 mm, Conning tower: 4,02" / 102 mm

Machinery:
    Coal fired boilers, simple reciprocating steam engines,
    Direct drive, 1 shaft, 3 946 ihp / 2 944 Kw = 13,70 kts
    Range 2 700nm at 8,00 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 895 tons (100% coal)

Complement:
    631

Cost:
    £0,594 million / $2,374 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 311 tons, 5,4%
    Armour: 1 076 tons, 18,6%
       - Belts: 408 tons, 7,1%
       - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0,0%
       - Armament: 410 tons, 7,1%
       - Armour Deck: 230 tons, 4,0%
       - Conning Tower: 28 tons, 0,5%
    Machinery: 1 119 tons, 19,3%
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 2 002 tons, 34,6%
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 779 tons, 13,5%
    Miscellaneous weights: 503 tons, 8,7%

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      2 287 lbs / 1 037 Kg = 18,4 x 7,5 " / 190 mm shells or 0,5 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,45
    Metacentric height 3,9 ft / 1,2 m
    Roll period: 11,7 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,19
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1,26

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has a flush deck
    Block coefficient: 0,582
    Length to Beam Ratio: 5,03 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 16,57 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -5,00 degrees
    Stern overhang: 0,00 ft / 0,00 m
    Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
       - Stem:        14,34 ft / 4,37 m
       - Forecastle (20%):    13,55 ft / 4,13 m
       - Mid (50%):        13,55 ft / 4,13 m
       - Quarterdeck (15%):    13,55 ft / 4,13 m
       - Stern:        13,91 ft / 4,24 m
       - Average freeboard:    13,64 ft / 4,16 m
    Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 112,7%
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 82,1%
    Waterplane Area: 10 529 Square feet or 978 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 92%
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 131 lbs/sq ft or 639 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0,93
        - Longitudinal: 2,16
        - Overall: 1,01
    Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped
    Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped
    Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Okręty w typie:
Hizen (1864)
Yoshino (1864)
Harima (1865)
Awaji (1865)


Ashigara, japanese frigate laid down 1863 (Engine 1864)

Displacement:
    3 193 t light; 3 346 t standard; 4 030 t normal; 4 578 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
    258,30 ft / 250,10 ft x 47,15 ft x 22,11 ft (normal load)
    78,73 m / 76,23 m x 14,37 m  x 6,74 m

Armament:
      20 - 100pdr guns in single mounts, 1863 Model
      Smoothbore guns in broadside mounts
      on side, evenly spread
      20 guns on gundeck (upper belt level) - Limited use in all but light seas
      1 - 300pdr guns in single mounts, 1863 Model
      Smoothbore gun in deck mount
      on centreline aft
    Weight of broadside 1 300 lbs / 590 kg
    Shells per gun, main battery: 115

Armour:

   - Conning tower: 2,56" / 65 mm

Machinery:
    Coal fired boilers, simple reciprocating steam engines,
    Direct drive, 1 shaft, 5 028 ihp / 3 751 Kw = 15,40 kts
    Range 2 800nm at 10,00 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 1 231 tons (100% coal)

Complement:
    480

Cost:
    £0,426 million / $1,706 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 140 tons, 3,5%
    Armour: 14 tons, 0,3%
       - Belts: 0 tons, 0,0%
       - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0,0%
       - Armament: 0 tons, 0,0%
       - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0,0%
       - Conning Tower: 14 tons, 0,3%
    Machinery: 1 407 tons, 34,9%
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 1 309 tons, 32,5%
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 837 tons, 20,8%
    Miscellaneous weights: 323 tons, 8,0%

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      890 lbs / 404 Kg = 17,9 x 5,5 " / 140 mm shells or 0,3 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,43
    Metacentric height 3,0 ft / 0,9 m
    Roll period: 11,4 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 46 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,13
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 0,84

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has a flush deck
    Block coefficient: 0,541
    Length to Beam Ratio: 5,30 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 15,81 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30,00 degrees
    Stern overhang: 0,00 ft / 0,00 m
    Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
       - Stem:        14,21 ft / 4,33 m
       - Forecastle (20%):    12,04 ft / 3,67 m
       - Mid (50%):        12,04 ft / 3,67 m
       - Quarterdeck (15%):    12,04 ft / 3,67 m
       - Stern:        13,06 ft / 3,98 m
       - Average freeboard:    12,29 ft / 3,75 m
    Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 147,7%
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 71,9%
    Waterplane Area: 7 901 Square feet or 734 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 94%
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 109 lbs/sq ft or 534 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0,92
        - Longitudinal: 2,18
        - Overall: 1,00
    Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped
    Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped
    Poor seaboat, wet and uncomfortable, reduced performance in heavy weather

Okręty w typie:
Ashigara (1864)
Asama (1864)
Ibuki (1865)
Amagi (1865)


Chikuma, japanese corvette laid down 1863 (Engine 1864)

Displacement:
    1 410 t light; 1 459 t standard; 1 669 t normal; 1 837 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
    206,94 ft / 199,38 ft x 33,66 ft x 16,21 ft (normal load)
    63,08 m / 60,77 m x 10,26 m  x 4,94 m

Armament:
      10 - 68pdr guns in single mounts, 1863 Model
      Smoothbore guns in broadside mounts
      on side, evenly spread
      10 guns on gundeck (upper belt level) - Limited use in all but light seas
    Weight of broadside 340 lbs / 154 kg
    Shells per gun, main battery: 100

Machinery:
    Coal fired boilers, simple reciprocating steam engines,
    Direct drive, 1 shaft, 2 151 ihp / 1 604 Kw = 14,00 kts
    Range 2 100nm at 8,50 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 379 tons (100% coal)

Complement:
    249

Cost:
    £0,164 million / $0,655 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 35 tons, 2,1%
    Machinery: 610 tons, 36,5%
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 632 tons, 37,9%
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 259 tons, 15,5%
    Miscellaneous weights: 134 tons, 8,0%

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      559 lbs / 253 Kg = 20,2 x 4,5 " / 115 mm shells or 0,2 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,25
    Metacentric height 1,5 ft / 0,4 m
    Roll period: 11,7 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,20
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 2,00

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has a flush deck
    Block coefficient: 0,537
    Length to Beam Ratio: 5,92 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 14,12 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 29,00 degrees
    Stern overhang: 0,00 ft / 0,00 m
    Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
       - Stem:        13,65 ft / 4,16 m
       - Forecastle (20%):    12,17 ft / 3,71 m
       - Mid (50%):        12,17 ft / 3,71 m
       - Quarterdeck (15%):    12,17 ft / 3,71 m
       - Stern:        12,40 ft / 3,78 m
       - Average freeboard:    12,31 ft / 3,75 m
    Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 142,3%
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 80,5%
    Waterplane Area: 4 477 Square feet or 416 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102%
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 75 lbs/sq ft or 364 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0,85
        - Longitudinal: 4,43
        - Overall: 1,00
    Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped
    Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped
    Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
    Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

Okręty w typie:
Chikuma (1864)
Kushiro (1864)
Sumida (1864)
Nagara (1865)
Tone (1865)
Yodo (1865)

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