środa, 29 sierpnia 2012

Predrednot Tourville (1894) - 09.06.2011

W 1890 r. Francja uchwaliła program rozwoju sił morskich, wramach którego zamierzała wybudować 10 pełnomorskich pancerników, z limitemwyporności 12.000 ton. Poniżej moja propozycja pancernika mieszczącego się www. limicie, oparta na rysunku jednego ze sporządzonych lecz niezrealizowanychprojektów. Od faktycznie zbudowanych okrętów (Charles Martel, Carnot i in.)odróżnia się ujednoliconym kalibrem artylerii głównej którą tworzą czterydziała 305 mm,zamiast mieszaniny dział 305 mm i 274 mm, zaś specyficzne, „francuskie” ustawienie wieżzapewnia możliwość prowadzenia ognia z trzech dział w każdym kierunku.

   
Tourville, french battleship laid down 1892 (Engine 1894)

Displacement:
    10 682 t light; 11 128 t standard; 11 985 t normal; 12 671 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
    411,68 ft / 411,68 ft x 68,44 ft x 25,98 ft (normal load)
    125,48 m / 125,48 m x 20,86 m  x 7,92 m

Armament:
      2 - 12,01" / 305 mm guns in single mounts, 865,70lbs / 392,67kg shells, 1892 Model
      Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes)
      on centreline ends, evenly spread
      Main guns limited to end-on fire
      2 - 12,01" / 305 mm guns in single mounts, 865,70lbs / 392,67kg shells, 1892 Model
      Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes)
      on side, all amidships
      8 - 6,46" / 164 mm guns in single mounts, 134,59lbs / 61,05kg shells, 1892 Model
      Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes)
      on side, evenly spread
      6 - 2,56" / 65,0 mm guns in single mounts, 8,38lbs / 3,80kg shells, 1892 Model
      Quick firing guns in deck mounts
      on side, evenly spread
      8 - 1,85" / 47,0 mm guns in single mounts, 3,17lbs / 1,44kg shells, 1892 Model
      Quick firing guns in deck mounts
      on side, evenly spread
    Weight of broadside 4 615 lbs / 2 093 kg
    Shells per gun, main battery: 75
    2 - 17,7" / 450 mm submerged torpedo tubes

Armour:
   - Belts:        Width (max)    Length (avg)        Height (avg)
    Main:    13,8" / 350 mm    197,61 ft / 60,23 m    6,76 ft / 2,06 m
    Ends:    4,72" / 120 mm    134,78 ft / 41,08 m    6,76 ft / 2,06 m
      79,30 ft / 24,17 m Unarmoured ends
      Main Belt covers 74% of normal length
      Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Torpedo Bulkhead:
        1,18" / 30 mm      87,43 ft / 26,65 m    23,06 ft / 7,03 m

   - Gun armour:    Face (max)    Other gunhouse (avg)    Barbette/hoist (max)
    Main:    9,45" / 240 mm    6,50" / 165 mm        13,4" / 340 mm
    2nd:    9,45" / 240 mm    6,50" / 165 mm        13,4" / 340 mm
    3rd:    6,10" / 155 mm    3,94" / 100 mm        3,94" / 100 mm

   - Armour deck: 1,97" / 50 mm, Conning tower: 6,89" / 175 mm

Machinery:
    Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines,
    Direct drive, 3 shafts, 10 898 ihp / 8 130 Kw = 17,50 kts
    Range 5 000nm at 10,00 kts
    Bunker at max displacement = 1 543 tons (100% coal)

Complement:
    572 - 744

Cost:
    £1,122 million / $4,486 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
    Armament: 577 tons, 4,8%
    Armour: 3 447 tons, 28,8%
       - Belts: 1 035 tons, 8,6%
       - Torpedo bulkhead: 88 tons, 0,7%
       - Armament: 1 514 tons, 12,6%
       - Armour Deck: 732 tons, 6,1%
       - Conning Tower: 78 tons, 0,6%
    Machinery: 1 879 tons, 15,7%
    Hull, fittings & equipment: 4 779 tons, 39,9%
    Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1 304 tons, 10,9%
    Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0,0%

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
    Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
      13 631 lbs / 6 183 Kg = 15,7 x 12,0 " / 305 mm shells or 2,2 torpedoes
    Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,00
    Metacentric height 2,8 ft / 0,9 m
    Roll period: 17,0 seconds
    Steadiness    - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 91 %
            - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1,17
    Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1,89

Hull form characteristics:
    Hull has rise forward of midbreak
    Block coefficient: 0,573
    Length to Beam Ratio: 6,02 : 1
    'Natural speed' for length: 20,29 kts
    Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 %
    Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 48
    Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -20,00 degrees
    Stern overhang: 0,00 ft / 0,00 m
    Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
       - Stem:        22,41 ft / 6,83 m
       - Forecastle (18%):    22,41 ft / 6,83 m
       - Mid (76%):        22,41 ft / 6,83 m (13,88 ft / 4,23 m aft of break)
       - Quarterdeck (17%):    13,88 ft / 4,23 m
       - Stern:        13,88 ft / 4,23 m
       - Average freeboard:    20,36 ft / 6,21 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
    Space    - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 125,8%
        - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 143,8%
    Waterplane Area: 20 092 Square feet or 1 867 Square metres
    Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101%
    Structure weight / hull surface area: 150 lbs/sq ft or 734 Kg/sq metre
    Hull strength (Relative):
        - Cross-sectional: 0,89
        - Longitudinal: 2,68
        - Overall: 1,00
    Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped
    Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent
    Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
    Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

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